The Census (Censo Demográfico) is conducted every ten years by IBGE. All households in the country are visited by IBGE agents. This survey counts the population and collects basic information about residents, such as age and gender.

IBGE also conducts a more detailed interview on a large random sample of households, investigating household members’ socio-demographic characteristics (schooling, income etc.), household’s characteristics (wall materials, plumbing etc.), and possession of physical assets (refrigerator, car etc.). In the 2010 Census sample, there are 6.2 million households and 20.6 million individuals.